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Author Guidelines


Submission of a manuscript entails that the work has not been published previously nor is under consideration for publication elsewhere. It is the responsibility of the person submitting the contents to have the prior written consent of the organization/person where/by whom the work was carried out.

English Style

The manuscript must be written in British or American English in a clear and active style to maintain the uniformity throughout the text. Authors from non-English speaking countries should team up with English speaking colleagues or contact with professional English editing companies for checking the language, style and grammar of the manuscript. Alternatively, for English language and grammatical corrections, editors/authors are advised to English language editing services to avail copyediting and language editing services.

Content Organization

The manuscript may be divided into the following sections:

  • Copyright letter
  • Title
  • Title Page
  • Authors and Institutional Affiliations
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Main Text
  • Greek Symbols and Special Characters
  • Equations and Mathematical ExPublisherions
  • Patient Consent
  • Ethical issues
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Acknowledgements
  • Conflict of Interest
  • References
  • Figure/Illustrations
  • Chemical Structures
  • Tables
  • Supportive/Supplementary Material

The complete manuscript must be provided in the form of a single zipped folder containing soft copies of all the materials i.e., main text in MSWORD or Tex/Latex format, figures/illustrations, tables, equations and chemical structures, as separate files. A PDF version of the manuscript embedded with all the figures/illustrations/tables/chemical structures etc. in the correct location must also be submitted

Numbering Style

Author(s) are requested to select the numbering style for the chapters and apply this style consistently to all chapters or sections.

Tables & figures

should be placed inside the text. Tables and figures should be presented as per their appearance in the text. It is suggested that the discussion about the tables and figures should appear in the text before the appearance of the respective tables and figures. No tables or figures should be given without discussion or reference inside the text.

Tables should be explanatory enough to be understandable without any text reference. Double spacing should be maintained throughout the table, including table headings and footnotes. Table headings should be placed above the table. Footnotes should be placed below the table with superscript lowercase letters.

Each figure should have a caption. The caption should be concise and typed separately, not on the figure area. Figures should be self-explanatory. Information presented in the figure should not be repeated in the table. All symbols and abbreviations used in the illustrations should be defined clearly. Figure legends should be given below the figures.

Abbreviations, special characters, etc

Before submission, author(s) should carefully proofread the manuscript for abbreviations, special characters, mathematical symbols, Greek letters, equations, tables, figures, references and images, to ensure that they appear in proper order and format.

Nomenclature and Units

Internationally accepted rules and the international system of units (SI) should be used. If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

For biological nomenclature, the conventions of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature should be followed.

Scientific names of all biological creatures (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc.) should be mentioned in parentheses at first use of their English term.

Chemical nomenclature

as laid down in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the official recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed. All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their Geneva names when first used in the text. Active ingredients of all formulations should be likewise identified.

Math formulae

All equations referred to in the text should be numbered serially at the right-hand side in parentheses. Meaning of all symbols should be given immediately after the equation at first use. Instead of root signs, fractional powers should be used.

Subscripts and superscripts should be presented clearly. Variables should be presented in italics. Greek letters and non-Roman symbols should be described in the margin at their first use.

To avoid any misunderstanding zero (0) and the letter O, and one (1) and the letter l should be clearly differentiated.

For simple fractions use of the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line is recommended.

Levels of statistical significance such as: *P <0.05, **P <0.01 and ***P <0.001 do not require any further explanation.

Guideline for Reporting P values:  P is always italicized and capitalized.

  • Correct exPublisherion: (P = .05). Wrong ExPublisherion: (P < .05), unless P < .001.
  • The P value should be exPublishered to 2 digits whether or not it is significant. If P < .01, it should be exPublishered to 3 digits.
  • When rounding, 3 digits is acceptable if rounding would change the significance of a value (eg, P = .049 rounded to .05).
  • ExPublishering P to more than 3 significant digits does not add useful information since precise P values with extreme results are sensitive to biases or departures from the statistical model.
  • Reporting actual P values avoids this problem of interpretation. P values should not be listed as not significant (NS) since, for meta-analysis, the actual values are important and not providing exact P values is a form of incomplete reporting.
  • vi) Do not use 0 before the decimal point for statistical values P, alpha, and beta because they cannot equal 1.

A brief acknowledgement section may be given. The acknowledgements of people who provided assistance in manuscript preparation, funding for research, etc. should be listed in this section. All sources of funding should be declared as an acknowledgement. Authors should declare the role of the funding agency, if any, in the study design, collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.

Competing Interests

Declaration of competing interest is compulsory. All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If no such declaration has been made by the authors, Proud Pen reserves to assume and write this sentence: “Authors have declared that no competing interests exist.”

List of Contributors

Names of all contributors to the book, in alphabetical order with their affiliations and addresses, are published in this page.

Patient Consents

All clinical investigations must be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki principles. No manuscript will be peer-reviewed if a statement of patient consent is not presented during submission (wherever applicable). This section is compulsory for medical Works. It should provide a statement to confirm that the patient has given the informed consent for the research work to be published. Editorial office may ask the copies of the consent documentation at any time. If the person described in the research work has died, then consent for publication must be collected from their next of kin. If the individual described in the article is a minor, or unable to provide consent, then consent must be sought from their parents or legal guardians.

Ethical approval (Wherever applicable)

This section is compulsory for medical research works. If human subjects are involved, informed consent, protection of privacy, and other human rights are further criteria against which the manuscript will be judged. It should provide a statement to confirm that the authors have obtained all necessary ethical approval from suitable Institutional or State or National or International Committee. This confirms either that this study is not against the public interest, or that the release of information is allowed by legislation.

All manuscripts which deal with animal subjects must be approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB), Ethical Committee, or an Animal Utilization Study Committee and this statement, and approval number must accompany the submission. If required, the author should be ready to submit a scanned copy of the IRB or Ethical Committee Approval at any stage of publication (Pre or post-publication stage). The manuscript should contain information about any post-operative care and pain management for the animals.

All manuscripts which deal with the study of human subjects must be accompanied by Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Ethical Committee Approval, or the national or regional equivalent. The name of the Board or Committee giving approval and the study number assigned must accompany the submission. If required, the author should be ready to submit a scanned copy of the IRB or Ethical Committee Approval at any stage of publication (Pre or post-publication stage).

Reference style

REFERENCES should follow the APA standard (American Psychological Association 7th edition – more information References should be indicated by giving (in parentheses) the author’s name followed by the date of the paper or book; or with the date in parentheses, as in ‘suggested by Fletching (1975)’.

In the text, use the form Olsen et al 1975 where there are more than two authors, but list all authors in the references. Quotations of more than one line of text from cited works should be indented and citation should include the page number of the quotation; e.g. (Thomas 1979: 56).

References should be listed, as follows, in one alphabetical sequence at the end of the text:

Book styleAuthor, year. Title (in italics). Publisher, location of publisher.

Cichocki, A. and Unbehaven, R., (1993). Neural Networks for Optimization and Signal Processing, 1st ed. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley.

Chen, W. K. (1993). Linear Networks and Systems, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, pp. 123-135.

JournalAuthor, year. Paper title. Journal name (in italics), volume and issue numbers, inclusive pages.

Chen, S., Mulgrew, B. and Granta, P. M. (1993). A clustering technique for digital communications channel equalization using radial basis function networks, IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, vol. 4, pp. 570-578.

Hill, R. M. (1997). The single-vendor single-buyer integrated production–inventory model with a generalized policy, European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 97, pp. 493-499.

Online Sources style

Vidmar, R. J. (August 1992). On the use of atmospheric plasmas as electromagnetic reflectors. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. [Online]. 21(3). pp. 876-880. Available:

Conference paper or contributed volumeAuthor, year, paper title. Proceedings title (in italics). City, country, inclusive pages.

Beck, K. and Ralph, J. (1994). Patterns Generates Architectures.  Proceedings of European Conference of Object-Oriented Programming. Bologna, Italy, pp. 139-149.

Back Cover Page

A brief write-up (100-150 words) on the major contributions and current affiliation of the author and the Editor will be printed on the back-cover page along with his/her photograph. Author and the Editor need to submit this information.

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