Chapter And Authors Information
Deglobalization has led to significant changes in the living conditions of the population of most countries of the world. It is possible to note not only the negative, but also the positive sides of Deglobalization. It is possible to reduce the disadvantages of Deglobalization and strengthen its advantages based on the application of the theory of functional equivalence. It is necessary to study the potential of a person and models of his consumer behavior. There are three main consumption models, each of which can lead to the establishment of equivalence with the formation of positive emotions. When the rate of establishing equivalence begins to lag behind the rate of increasing the number of imbalances, emotional stress develops, the severity of which depends on a person’s preparation to withstand life difficulties, and on the consumption model used. To prevent consequences of chronic emotional stress, it is necessary to organize assistance to the population at the individual, group and population level. The meaning of assistance is the formation of new imbalances in a person, more significant than such imbalances as falling incomes, job loss, being not certain of the future. The purpose of the assistance is to form “channels” for establishing equivalence that can increase a person’s aspirations for creativity, for finding non-standard solutions that can help overcome the consequences of Deglobalization and restrictions.
Deglobalization, functional equivalence theory, stress
Globalization has given significant advantages to producers and consumers of goods and services, mainly in developed countries, through the development of new markets and distribution channels. At the same time, globalization is stimulated by the formation of dependence in a significant part of the population of various countries on pleasant sensations obtained due to the constant growth of consumption (Reith, 2004; Avilov, 2020; Avilov, 2021). It is known that consumer behavior is largely determined by the emotional state before buying (Soodan and Pandey, 2016; Achar et al., 2016). But the very fact of buying, consuming desired goods or services is an example of establishing equivalence and is always accompanied by positive emotions (Avilov, 2020). In my opinion, it was the increase in the opportunity to experience positive emotions that was the goal of Globalization. At the same time, the threats of slowing economic development associated with the beginning of Deglobalization appeared after the financial crisis of 2008 (James, 2018). At the same time, deglobalization is the process of reducing interdependence and integration between certain units around the world, usually nation states (Komolov, 2021). Currently, the world is moving towards an era of Deglobalization, which is accompanied by an increase in cases of nationalism, protectionism in the economy, and the gradual destruction of the foundations of the world order (Garg, 2021; Hayes and Weber, 2021). Developing countries are struggling to cope with the negative consequences of Globalization, it is worth considering Deglobalization as a boon that allows them to challenge the West (Behera, 2021). The specifics of the Russian economy make it possible, taking into account Deglobalization, not to attach decisive importance to it in determining the prospects for economic growth (Kozlov and Sokolova, 2020). Thus, the view of Deglobalization may be different.
But the problems associated with the development of Deglobalization processes have become even more urgent in connection with the COVID–19 pandemic. The restriction of habitual contacts of people both at the international and domestic level has led to significant economic problems (Caliguiri et al., 2020; Zhang, 2021). It can also be noted that the pandemic has led to a significant change in the behavior of consumers of goods and services (Kirk, Rifkin, 2020; Blanc. et al., 2021).
Can we say that Deglobalization against the background of the COVID -19 pandemic is definitely a negative phenomenon? I believe that this is not the case. Speaking about the disadvantages, we can name the following:
1. Disruption of production, supply and consumption of goods and services.
2. Reduction of opportunities for international tourism.
3. Rising unemployment
4. Decrease in real incomes of the population
5. Overstrain of the healthcare system in most countries
6. Increasing social tension in society
But, in my opinion, there are also advantages from combining Deglobalization with a pandemic. They can be listed:
1. The need to develop our own production and the domestic market at a rapid pace.
2. The emergence of incentives for the intensive development of domestic tourism.
3. The increased need to find solutions and resources for future production.
4. The need to master new professions, take training and retraining courses.
5. The increasing importance of individual control over their health and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
6. Increasing opportunities for self-development and receiving positive emotions at the same time.
Thus, generalizing, we can say that the advantages of Deglobalization are the need for “brainstorming” at the level of an individual, group, population. Moving away from the usual way of life can help unlock creative potential and lead to new revolutionary discoveries for the benefit of the entire population of the Earth. The process of Deglobalization against the background of the COVID-19 pandemic has set humanity the task not only to adapt to changes in the consumption of goods and services, but also to simply survive with minimal health consequences.
How can we reduce the negative aspects of the current situation in the world and increase the effectiveness of the positive ones? First of all, it should be noted that a negative or positive forecast of the development of the situation depends on the attitude towards it. If we know what to do, then the prognosis is favorable. If we are demoralized because of the sudden need to think and act differently than before, then the scenario of my future can be written in black. It should be borne in mind that the main economic activity is not abstract indicators such as “demand” or “supply”. The basis is people motivated to produce and (or) consume goods and services. Changing the usual way of life, the need to adapt to new conditions of existence can change the behavior of people in general, and in the consumer market in particular. Understanding the situation, developing an algorithm of actions to facilitate the process of adaptation of the population to the new reality is possible based on the application of the theory of functional equivalence.
Forecasting the consequences of Deglobalization and the COVID –19 pandemic based on an assessment of the causes and patterns of consumption in modern society
First of all, when providing assistance to the population, it is necessary to proceed from the fact that the combination of Deglobalization with COVID-19 has dramatically changed the structure of consumption of goods and services. In order to understand a person’s reaction to these changes, it is necessary to determine the features of his habitual consumer behavior. After that, it is possible to develop an optimal strategy and tactics of actions in new conditions at the individual, group and population level.
To do this, the leaders of countries, corporations, enterprises, organizations need to understand what aims of their work should there exist in the context of Deglobalization, and the COVID –19 pandemic. Save people’s lives and health at the cost of falling incomes and changing consumption patterns? To return to the level of consumption of goods and services that was before the onset of Deglobalization and the pandemic, even at the cost of human health?
After a positive answer to the first question, it is advisable to start analyzing the problem. In order to explain the negative consequences of Deglobalization, especially with the additional impact of restrictions related to COVID – 19, it is necessary to find out the following. Why are some people interested in increasing and (or) consuming goods and services, while others are not? Why do some easily tolerate restrictions on the level of consumption, while others do not? Why do some people have antisocial behavior when their living conditions change, while others do not? Using the theory of functional equivalence to answer these questions, first of all, in my opinion, it is necessary to address the problem of human potential. By the potential of any living system, I understand the innate capabilities of the organism and its individual systems determined by the initial, which is formed at the level of the zygote, non-uniformity. These opportunities are used to eliminate imbalances arising in the process of life. The higher the individual level of inequality, the higher, all other things being equal, the level of imbalances that need to be eliminated during life. In the course of our life cycle, there is a continuous movement from inequality to equilibrium, that is, to death. In fact, death is the realization of an individual’s potential. At the same time, the potential cannot but be realized in the process of development of a living organism. It’s just a matter of how fast it happens, how quickly the body “self-actualizes” due to potential (Avilov, 2020). From the point of view of the theory of functional equivalence, informational, physical and chemical effects on the body, which can be called constantly emerging imbalances, should be equivalent to the sum of information, physical and chemical components of vital activity transformed in the body and isolated from the body (Avilov, 2020). The need is the development of an imbalance of varying severity caused by an excess of the above components. Satisfaction of needs is the search for “channels” for establishing equivalence, that is, an increased or decreased amount of informational, physical and chemical incentives to eliminate this excess. At the same time, the establishment of equivalence can be due to the predominant change in the informational, physical or chemical component of vital activity. Only the sum of these components remains unchanged. If imbalances (needs) have correlation with the magnitude of individual potential and are eliminated in a timely manner, this leads to a slowdown in the movement towards equilibrium (death). To understand the meaning of establishing equivalence, you can use an example showing the movement of water downhill. Disequilibrium is water that accumulates at the top of a mountain, and having reached a critical mass, breaks through the dam and rushes down into the valley, to equilibrium. The volume of water at the top is the potential. The water can go to the valley by the shortest path, or it can zigzag. Each zigzag is a “channel” for establishing equivalence. A conditional dam set up in the path of the flow, and temporarily restraining it – this is the establishment of equivalence. The very fact of establishing equivalence can be seen by changing the structure and function of human organs and tissues, by changing motor and behavioral activity. Thoughts, emotions can be both intermediate and final results of establishing equivalence. The final result of forming thoughts can be the formation of a final decision followed by action. An indicator of successful mental and other activities is the formation of positive emotions (Sudakov, 1993). Catharsis (Schaper, 1968) can also be regarded as confirmation of the formation of equivalence.
Consequently, the intensity of needs, the intensity of aspirations to satisfy them directly depends on the individual potential of the consumer. In this regard, to determine the options for a person’s actions in a difficult situation, an assessment of his potential is necessary. The result will represent the first stage of forecasting possible problems that can lead to a change in consumer behavior during a period of restrictions. When considering the features of modern society, it is possible to find a certain order of both the formation of imbalances and their elimination. The imbalance of the first level is associated with the need to constantly be in a safe, comfortable environment. The imbalance of the second level occurs when a person has to look for objects, things, food necessary for a safe life. If a person is unable to provide himself with everything he needs for a safe existence, there is an imbalance of the third level – the desire for money. The need to do something, to do something, to study something in order to get money is an imbalance of the fourth level. At the same time, we can earn money as employees, or we can independently create something for subsequent sale. In the latter case, an imbalance of the fifth level is formed – the desire to sell manufactured goods or services. The elimination of this imbalance is possible only if we are able to create imbalances related to the demand for our goods or services from potential buyers. Advertising can make unnecessary things necessary and, in case of its excessive impact on a person, lead to additional, not natural imbalances. But advertisers, sellers, possible health problems of buyers who are eager to buy something, usually do not care much. The main thing is to sell! Sales of manufactured goods and services are the elimination of the imbalance of the fifth level. Receiving money after the sale –it is eliminating the imbalances of the fourth and third levels. The purchase of necessary goods and services with the help of money, including after stimulation by advertising, means the elimination of the imbalance of the second level. And only the feeling of being safe, in a state of physical and mental comfort can talk about eliminating the imbalance of the first level and establishing full equivalence. Getting rid of imbalances of different levels is always accompanied by the development of positive emotions.
A somewhat different picture is observed, in my opinion, in primitive society, some islands of which still exist in the world. Is it possible to say that the potential of people living according to their own laws away from civilization is in all cases lower than that of those who live in modern society? I believe that this is not the case. The potentials, or in other words, the levels of the initial disequilibrium, can be comparable. The difference can be found on the path of movement from disequilibrium to equilibrium, on the path of realization of individual potential. It should be noted that the psychological characteristics of representatives of primitive tribes may be very similar to those of representatives of most countries (Van Vugt and Park, 2010). This means that the logic of the behavior of the former is quite predictable. It is safe to say that for people living in a traditional community, the imbalance of the first level associated with the desire to be in a safe environment will be very pronounced. As well as the imbalance of the second level, which consists in the constant need to think about food and the need to protect yourself from an aggressive external environment. The imbalance of the third level in this category of people is caused not by the desire to possess money, but by the need to manufacture, find or exchange something directly to eliminate the imbalances of a lower level. If this succeeds, a person comes to establish equivalence and to the subsequent development of positive emotions. Consequently, in my opinion, people leading a primitive lifestyle can have fewer imbalances than their contemporaries living in economically developed countries. At the same time, the expenditure of potential in the former is significant, and the movement from disequilibrium to equilibrium, unlike the latter, is accelerated. This assumption can be attributed to the lack of reliable data on the presence of centenarians in primitive tribes.
Of particular importance is the allocation of another category of people, the formation of imbalances in which differs from the scenario that is typical for civilized countries. We are talking about people who have received a certain education, who live and have lived in modern society, but who voluntarily chose the path of limiting consumption (Dalai-Lama, 2004). These are monks, as well as representatives of various religious denominations who have chosen a secluded lifestyle. You can find imbalances of three levels in them. However, unlike representatives of primitive tribes, people of the selected group have little need for money to purchase the necessary minimum of food, clothing and other items. At the same time, this imbalance, and then, successively, others, is leveled thanks to donations, receiving alms, including for sermons, advice to those who eliminate their imbalance associated with the lack of meaning in life. As a result, equivalence is established and positive emotions arise. Apparently, they occur quite often in this category of consumers. Since, traditionally, hermits, saints, monks are depicted sitting with a blissful smile on their face. And, apparently, the formation of an equivalent response occurs mainly due to the information components of vital activity. For both monks and hermits spend most of their time either praying or meditating. The potential of these representatives of humanity is probably spent very sparingly. There is quite a lot of evidence about the possibility of a long quality life of these people.
Thus, three main models of consumer behavior can be distinguished. If the model is the first, then the vast majority of residents of developed and developing countries are adapting to an increasingly high level of consumption of goods and services. It is accompanied by the constant receipt of positive emotions with the risk of addiction. This dependence, as previously believed (Reith, 2004), is the basis of economic development, especially in the period of Globalization. The second model, characteristic of representatives of primitive society, can lead to the development of positive emotions as a result of forced maintenance of a certain amount of consumption.
Those who adhere to the third consumption model deliberately limit the possibility of developing imbalances to a minimum level. And positive emotions are obtained by establishing equivalence mainly at the informational level.
In some cases, especially in extreme conditions, it is possible to consciously or unconsciously form a combination of the selected three models of consumer behavior.
Any consumption always requires effort, accompanied by a waste of potential. These efforts are expressed in actions that either directly could lead to a result, or indirectly, through the preliminary extraction of money.
Therefore, the analysis of the consumption model that a person adheres to, the allocation of the degree of his dependence on consumption is the second stage of forecasting the problems that may arise due to consumption restrictions. The problems associated with the need to spend potential and the problems of consumption are interrelated.
Forecasting the consequences of Deglobalization and the COVID -19 pandemic based on an assessment of the population’s response to restrictions
In modern conditions, human behavior will primarily be determined by such a reaction as stress. Stress is a non-specific response of the body to any requirement imposed on it (Selye, 1951). Stressors are physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial factors that cause stress (Selye, 1951). The most common are physical stress that occurs when the body receives any damage and emotional stress.
As I wrote earlier (Avilov, 2020), from the point of view of functional equivalence theory, when the rate of imbalance development due to exposure or sudden absence of exposure to informational, physical or chemical factors exceeds the rate of imbalance elimination, stress develops, and in particular emotional stress. If we use a comparison with water, then the following happens under stress: after the breakthrough of another conditional dam, water rushes down the mountain in different directions. In this case, a “channel” for establishing equivalence can be found, often by accident. During the entire search period, stress is accompanied not only by negative emotions, but also by changes in the work of almost all body systems (Selye, 1951). The more sudden the changes in the usual way of life, the more significant the stressors associated with it and the more pronounced the manifestations of such a reaction as stress. The significance of the stressor will also depend on how big the difference is between the lifestyle to which a person is adapted and the lifestyle to which he has yet to adapt. So, apparently, there is a difference between coming to rest comfortably in a country located in the tropics and getting to an uninhabited island in the same climatic conditions. The work of consciousness can increase the severity of body imbalances, thereby contributing to a more vivid manifestation of emotional stress. For example, thinking about the possible disappearance of your favorite products from the tradition, or thoughts about the need to somehow rebuild your life due to the restrictions associated with COVID – 19. This is also due to the fact that the Internet, as a symbol of Globalization, continues to function by advertising countries, goods, and services. But these additional imbalances created by consciousness in the conditions of Deglobalization are either not eliminated at all, or are eliminated but with difficulty, requiring additional spending of potential, time, money. The load on the psyche of a modern person has become very significant and is constantly increasing. Firstly, due to the realization that both Deglobalization and a pandemic may last for it is not clear how long. Secondly, because of the growing understanding of the futility of hoping for money as a universal means of protection from adversity. To the horror of many inhabitants of various countries, it turned out that COVID – 19 can be infected and not only the poorly provided, but also very wealthy people can die. If stress has developed and equivalence has not been established for a long time, then this can lead to serious consequences for human health (Selye, 1951) such as psychosomatic diseases, neuroses, emotional burnout, depression (Nesse, 2000). In this regard, after the stabilization of the Deglobalization situation and the end of the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase in morbidity and a decrease in the life expectancy of the population can be expected. This situation will be exacerbated by health problems for both those who have suffered COVID –19 and those who did not receive medical care on time due to the overload of national health systems during the pandemic. Another problem associated with the development of emotional stress in the population is the problem of aggression. At the same time, aggression can manifest itself against people of a different skin color, migrants, officials imposing restrictions, police officers trying to force people to comply with restrictive measures. Aggression can be a very common reaction during the search for “channels” of establishing equivalence for the formation of adaptation to new conditions (Marcovitz, 1973, Arlow, 1973). At the same time, in order to predict antisocial actions in a difficult period of human history, it is very important to identify those individuals for whom aggression has become one of the steps of establishing equivalence, and is accompanied by positive emotions (Bushman et al., 2001). Even more attention, I believe, should be paid to those people whose emotional stress is accompanied by the development of catharsis (Schaper, 1968). On the one hand, catharsis may indicate the success of psychotherapy (Nichols and Efran, 1985). On the other hand, aggressive behavior can also lead to catharsis (Leyens, 1977). And since catharsis can speak about the success of establishing equivalence, a person will repeatedly, forming a conditioned reflex, repeat the use of the found “channel”. If aggressive behavior has become the “channel” for establishing equivalence, then the person demonstrating it can become socially dangerous.
Another consequence of the long absence of the possibility of finding “channels” for establishing equivalence in a natural way is the formation of dependence on psychoactive substances, as well as other addictions (Goeders, 2007).
Thus, the assessment of human behavior in altered conditions of existence, the assessment of the severity of emotional stress and aggressive reactions are the third stage of predicting the consequences of limiting consumption.
To develop measures to help the population adapt to new living conditions, it is necessary to know both what kind of population we have to work with, and what initial level of training they have in order to withstand difficulties. For the study, such a category of the population as students was selected. Students are a dynamic part of society, very sensitive to changes in their environment (Chandrate, 2020). The current situation does not allow us to determine with high accuracy exactly how such a stressor as Deglobalization is perceived, and how the COVID – 19 pandemic is perceived. Since one is masked by the other. Nevertheless, a survey was conducted of 98 students studying at a Medical University and 102 students studying in non-medical specialties. All the students were female. The purpose of the survey was to find out what exactly bothers students in connection with Deglobalization. In order to determine which imbalances, or, in other words, stressors are most significant for students in the conditions of the COVID –19 pandemic, 255 medical students and 200 students studying in non–medical higher educational institutions were additionally surveyed. The students were interviewed during the period of pronounced restrictions related to COVID – 19. Female students accounted for 82.2% of all those who took part in the second questionnaire. The median age of all respondents was 22 years. Pearson’s x2 criteria were used for statistical data processing. Students’ answers to questions related to Deglobalization depended on what kind of specialty they wanted to get in the future. Thus, among the stressors caused by Deglobalization, 87 out of 98 medical students put in the first place a decrease in the supply of modern medical equipment from foreign countries. In the second place there was an increase in the price of essential medicines, and a change in the range of medicines. In the third place there was an increase in the price of many goods and services, and a decrease in their availability. A different picture was observed when interviewing non–medical students. According to 85 students out of 102, Deglobalization primarily led to the formation of such a significant imbalance for them as an increase in the price of a large number of goods and services. The second most important stressor was the reduction of employment opportunities in foreign countries. In third place was such a stressor as a decrease in the availability of medical care abroad.
Thus, the formation of imbalances associated with Deglobalization depends on which specialty students have chosen for themselves. Medical students, unlike another group of students, were most concerned that Deglobalization could negatively affect their future professional activities.
When assessing the impact of COVID – 19, the importance of the direction of students’ training was manifested in the fact that not all factors related to restrictions turned out to be equally significant for students of the two groups. For medical students (the first group), such imbalances as fear of infection and fear for the life and health of relatives and loved ones were more significant than for students of the second group (p < 0.05). I attribute this fact to the greater awareness of medical students about the consequences of COVID – 19. Apparently, the understanding of the problem to maintain the health led to the fact that medical students in contrast to the students of the second group were less significant financial distress caused by COVID – 19 (p< 0.05), fear of being alone (p< 0.05), and the inconsistency of information about COVID – 19 (p< 0.05).
As a result, when conducting a survey of students of data, we can say that the definition of the significance of certain imbalances depending on the extent of the special training to address them are the fourth stage of predicting the effects of consuming.
The identified four stages of forecasting the consequences of consumption restriction during the period of Deglobalization and the COVID – 19 pandemic are, in my opinion, advisable to use at the individual, group and population levels to determine the degree of violation of the habitual lifestyle. After analyzing the information about the behavioral characteristics of the surveyed population, it is necessary to develop a program to minimize the consequences of restrictions.
Possible ways to reduce the negative effects of Deglobalization in combination with the COVID-19 pandemic
In a previously published study (Avilov, 2021), it was shown that it would be the most effective method of optimizing behavior at the individual level. Students who, in the conditions of restrictions imposed due to COVID – 19, chose to eliminate the lack of a sense of security, the search for new knowledge, self-development, self-actualization, most often experienced feelings of joy and happiness. They also had a minimal level of emotional stress. This contrast was especially great compared to those students who believed that establishing equivalence in conditions of a lack of a sense of security would be most effective in accumulating real estate and money. These students rarely felt a state of joy and happiness, but most often a state of emotional stress. Most likely, we can say that these students had the first consumption model. The students who chose for themselves such a way of establishing equivalence as self-actualization were close to the third model of consumption. We can also say that they have meta-needs (Maslow, 1963). If the potential is sufficient, then within the framework of psychotherapeutic trainings, it is possible to replace one consumption model with another, more successful for maintaining health (Avilov, 2020). Retraining, replacing one “channel” of establishing equivalence with another is very relevant in modern conditions. In the case when an individual’s aggressive actions are not a stage on the way to finding a “channel” for establishing equivalence, but the desired result, leading to the development of positive emotions and even catharsis, two options for correcting behavior are possible. In the first case, it is necessary that the imbalance associated with the threat of punishment for aggressive behavior would be more significant than the one that can be eliminated with the help of aggressive behavior. In the second case, an imbalance should be created, the elimination of which is accompanied by more intense positive emotions than those that arise due to aggressive behavior. People with an increased tendency to aggression may be less dangerous to society if they engage in extreme sports, become firefighters or rescuers.
The result of the work on minimizing the consequences of restrictions at the individual level can be connected with determining the type of activity that will be interesting to do in the new conditions. At the same time, the imbalance that we eliminate when the activity is interesting is always greater than the imbalance that, for the sake of, for example, making money, we are forced to eliminate, even when there is no interest in doing something. Interest, from the point of view of functional equivalence theory, is a high-level imbalance, a meta-need (Maslow, 1963), which can even become the meaning of all life (Frankl, 1978). Self-observation can be used to determine a person’s interests, but most often this is facilitated by observation from relatives. The key condition for the success of individual work with a person is the formation of an emotionally colored feeling in him that his family and friends need him. This, in turn, forms a person’s love for others. Love is an imbalance that, in order to eliminate it, requires certain actions on the part of a person in relation to those who love him. The result of these actions is the temporary elimination of the imbalance, the establishment of equivalence and the appearance of positive emotions. The cycle from the desire to make something loved, actions and getting a positive emotional state can be repeated many times. It is within the framework of such a cycle that a person from the side of relatives can be prompted with options for working on himself, the results of which will make him even more beloved. It is possible to identify and develop interests, to help a person develop itself through the use of occupational therapy. There are currently many specific occupational therapies available (Reed and Sanderson, 1999). At the same time, all definitions of occupational therapy emphasize that its meaning is the therapeutic use of activity. Properly selected activities for an individual can improve the quality of his life and improve his health (Law and Baum, 1997), as well as contribute to less pronounced emotional reactions when problems arise (Reed and Sanderson, 1999) Practice of occupational therapy is mainly focused on vital activities. These include, in particular, productive activities and leisure. Productivity includes such activities that meet the goals of society and provide support for themselves and their families through the production of goods and services, the performance of certain duties.
Leisure also includes those activities that give the individual pleasure, amuse and entertain him. In order to prevent the adverse effects of emotional stress caused by Deglobalization and COVID – 19, an individual prescription of occupational therapy is required. There should be a combination of productive activities and leisure activities that would create an imbalance more significant than that caused by external circumstances. If an individual has fully or partially retained a paid job, the intensity of occupational therapy at the individual level, in a family setting, may be lower than in the case when the job is lost. In the latter case, the creation of additional imbalances linked to human interests should occur in the field of voluntary labor, in educational activities and in the field of leisure. At the same time, it is necessary to prevent the development of dependence on such a way of obtaining positive emotions as the use of psychoactive substances. The ideal option is to stimulate the individual’s creativity. True creativity is the conscious creation of imbalances, their independent elimination with the help of one or another activity, the result of which leads to the development of positive emotions even without the approval of others or receiving money for work. The ability not to succumb to the tricks of advertising could be helpful in this process. One should be aware of the fact that the task of advertisers is to create additional imbalances among potential consumers. And the task of a potential buyer of goods and services is to reduce the number and severity of deliberately created imbalances, reduce the frequency of emotional stress and all its consequences.
In general, the tactics of actions at the individual level during the period of adaptation to new conditions are reduced to the formation of a new, more pronounced imbalance than others, while simultaneously finding a new “channel” for establishing equivalence. How this process takes place can be seen on the example of an old parable. “One day the neighbors saw Mullah Nasruddin walking, swearing and in great pain. He was asked: “What’s the matter? Does your stomach hurt, or do you have a headache, or something else? What’s the matter? You look like you’re in a lot of pain,” he replied, “I am okay. The shoes I’.m wearing are too small.” “But then why are you wearing them?” He replied: “This is the only relief I feel at the end of the day. It’s my only joy, so I can’t throw these shoes away. They’re one size smaller and it’s a real hell, but in the evening it gives me heaven. When I come home, I take off my shoes, fall on the sofa and say that I have come. It’s so great!” (Osho Rajneesh, 1996).
The meaning of helping a family member, a friend who finds himself in a difficult situation due to Deglobalization and the COVID-19 pandemic is to prevent what can become a problem for others, in particular, suicidal thoughts, dependence on psychoactive substances, membership in extremist organizations.
An indicator that adaptation to new conditions has occurred, “channels” for establishing equivalence have been found and are working is an increase in the number and duration of positive emotions experienced by a person after starting work on himself during the period of restrictions. Usually, at the same time, the psychological climate in the family improves, social contacts increase, manifestations of aggressiveness are less frequent, a conscious interest in life appears. Many benefits will have those employers who, even under the conditions of problems and restrictions caused by Deglobalization and the COVID –19 pandemic, are able to organize leisure time for their employees and their family members.
The meaning of working with members of the labor collective of an enterprise or organization is to find new imbalances within the corporate idea, more significant than those caused by falling incomes, the risk of dismissal, and uncertainty about the future. Such an imbalance may be stimulating the creativity of employees, in particular, encouraging them to “brainstorm”, which can lead to new solutions for the development of an enterprise, organization in conditions of Deglobalization. Elimination of newly created imbalances will contribute to maintaining the cycle of reproduction of positive emotions, prevention of psychosomatic diseases, neuroses, as well as depression, which can lead to suicide, addiction, and excessive aggressiveness. As a result, the labor potential that will be required when the economy returns to normal will be preserved.
The meaning of working with previously dismissed employees is the prevention of antisocial behavior, the formation of a sense of confidence among former members of the labor collective that the employer will not abandon him to the mercy of fate, remembers him, and, perhaps, will attract him to paid work again. Occupation therapy in this case will consist in the popularization of voluntary labor, in preferential conditions of retraining, in assistance in organizing leisure activities. Advertising caring attitude to former employees can cause increased interest both to the employer and, indirectly, to the goods and services produced. An indicator that the work with the staff has been successful, that the company, the organization has rebuilt its work and has every chance to operate successfully in the conditions of Deglobalization and the COVID –19 pandemic, is a decrease in the number of cases of participation of their employees, current and former, in mass riots, protests, strikes. In addition, with the help of psychological testing, sociological surveys, which should be conducted regularly, an improvement in the psychological climate in the workforce can be revealed, a reduction in the number of conflict situations, the emergence of breakthrough ideas for business development, expanding opportunities to work on-line (Guthrie et al, 2021).
Speaking about overcoming the consequences of Deglobalization and the COVID–19 pandemic at the population level, first of all it is necessary to take into account that first Deglobalization, and then the pandemic that joined, showed that there is no solidarity between countries and peoples in the world (Komolov, 2021). It turned out that the lack of own production poses a threat to their national security for many countries, especially if they cannot solve the tasks of controlling the chains vital to the economy (Komolov, 2021). Therefore, the problems of the population and the ways to solve them will depend on which country they live in. Deglobalization allows relatively strong countries that can recreate the national economy to become even stronger. For some of them, even the COVID-19 pandemic was only an additional incentive to restructure and develop production (Komolov, 2021; Zhang, 2021). At the same time, in weaker countries, such as those that cannot independently produce the medical equipment or vaccines needed in a pandemic, the economic situation may become increasingly difficult. This, in particular, may be due to the fact that they are forced to buy equipment, medicines, and so on at inflated prices from more developed countries, since the mitigating effect of Globalization has ceased (Behera, 2021). This creates a certain imbalance at the level of state leaders, but they must eliminate it by agreeing to extortionate producer prices, further destroying the economy, because otherwise they will face a more significant imbalance – mass riots and protests of the population. Due to the need to significantly change the way of life, adapting to new conditions, the population of both “strong” and “weak” countries suffers. But the population of “weak” countries in the conditions of Deglobalization and pandemic has more stressors, of course. It is in such countries that we can expect an increase in cases of antisocial behavior, a decrease in labor productivity and life expectancy as a consequence of chronic emotional stress. To help at the state level, first of all, it is necessary to find out the degree of severity of imbalances and their consequences among the population. For this purpose, regular sociological surveys, analysis of the content of publications in the media, recording the scale and number of cases of mass riots, protest movements, strikes can be used. Additional information can be provided by the assessment of morbidity and mortality of the population in dynamics. As a result, there is an understanding of whether the imbalances in the population are becoming more or less pronounced. If negative trends in the state of public health increase, emergency measures are required. The first thing that all members of society need without exception is awareness of the situation. Understanding the problem and its possible consequences contributes to the development of correct solutions both at the individual, group, and population levels and helps to reduce the level of emotional stress (Sudakov, 1993). To solve the problem of awareness of the severity of problems, correction of the work of state mass media is required. Television, radio, and the press can explain to people what needs to be done to reduce the level of emotional stress, to preserve family and self-confidence. It is possible to create special Internet sites to explain to the population how, most likely, it would be possible to find “channels” for establishing equivalence to eliminate imbalances caused by Deglobalization and the pandemic. But the most important thing, in my opinion, is the mass media to create a new imbalance among the population, more significant than those imbalances caused by loss of work, loss of income, uncertainty about the future. The first variant of such an imbalance is the formation of a national idea designed to unite the nation in difficult times. For example, to create new, promising areas in the economy that can give serious advantages to the country in the future and bring it to the forefront in the world. This will require an appeal to the creative activity of the population. In conditions of restrictions, economic difficulties, such a call will almost certainly be supported. People need to determine the direction of spending their potential, to eliminate imbalances by establishing equivalence, and to receive positive emotions. The second option is to cultivate the idea of war, which may begin in the near future. This variant of creating the most pronounced imbalance has traditionally been used in various historical periods. So the population was distracted from the problems associated with rising prices, falling production, and declining incomes. In modern conditions, the COVID–19 pandemic can perform the function of an imbalance that is significant at almost the same level as war. The pandemic is able to hide from the population the inability of many Governments to solve the economic problems associated with Deglobalization. Thus, prevention of serious social upheavals is achieved.
The third option is finding the enemy – blaming some part of the population for creating all the problems. These may be migrants, representatives of some ethnic minorities in the country itself, bearers of ideology and religious beliefs alien to the state.
The meaning of creating the most significant imbalance in society is a hint to the emotionally stressed population where to spend their potential, what to choose as a “channel” for establishing equivalence.
The results of sociological surveys, reports of law enforcement agencies and health authorities are an indicator of what the population chooses for self-realization in the conditions of economic problems caused by Deglobalization and the pandemic. As a result of the right choice, such a source of stress as uncertainty decreases. The number of cases of antisocial behavior and calls for it is decreasing, and the likelihood of a change in the structure of power is decreasing. The morbidity and mortality of the population is decreasing.
Thus, the organization of assistance to the population in the conditions of the consequences of Deglobalization and the pandemic at the individual, group and population level can contribute to an increase in the duration and quality of life, the preservation of labor potential and the development of creative abilities of members of society. Thus, the basis is being prepared for a new round of economic development after the end of the problematic period.
Global changes in people’s lives caused by Deglobalization and the COVID – 19 pandemic have led to the development of such an important imbalance in the vast majority of the population as a lack of a sense of security (Avilov, 2021). If the feeling of being safe does not appear for a long time, chronic emotional stress develops. Its appearance shows that the search for “channels” for establishing equivalence has not been successful. The severity of chronic emotional stress and its consequences for human health and well-being depend on a person’s potential, the consumption model he adheres to, and the degree of his preparedness for action in various situations. If the potential is high, then significant natural or deliberately created imbalances are required to ensure an optimal rate of potential expenditure in order to slow down the transition to equilibrium – death. It is possible to spend your potential by combining production and consumption. If a person chooses the first, highlighted by me, consumption model, then he is adapted to the large volume of goods and services offered by modern society. Imbalances arise due to advertising and are eliminated to establish equivalence at the expense of potential, at a pace often exceeding the optimal one. For example, if a person wants to buy something passionately, he thinks about his future purchase, creating an additional imbalance. He tries to work harder to earn money to buy, or takes out a loan. This is another additional imbalance. Until these imbalances are eliminated, until equivalence is established, the indicator of which is the very fact of purchase and the appearance of positive emotions, a person is in a state of emotional stress. But in this case, the “channel” of establishing equivalence is known – a set of actions that eventually lead to a purchase. It is the adherents of the first consumption model who may suffer the most due to Deglobalization and restrictions associated with the COVID–19 pandemic. This is due to the fact that the rate of spending of individual potential has suddenly changed. The usual objects of consumption either became inaccessible, or began to require significantly increased time and money. But preliminary special training can help to avoid many adverse consequences of forced changes in consumer behavior. At the same time, those representatives of humanity who adhere to the second model of consumption, most likely, will not even notice that the era of Deglobalization and the period of restrictions due to COVID – 19 has come. However, this model of consumption does not contribute to the development of the economy, the development of civilization. For those who consciously, or due to a number of circumstances, switched to the third model of consumer behavior, Deglobalization and the pandemic matter, but their consequences are likely to be minimal. So, as the establishment of equivalence goes with them, mainly with the help of information components of life, which allows you to quickly adapt to new conditions. At the same time, their potential can be easily redirected to ensure creative activity. It seems that this particular consumption model is ideal. But, on the one hand, not all people are able to switch to this model. On the other hand, someone must also develop the material world in order to overcome the consequences of Deglobalization. Apparently, it would be most reasonable to achieve a combination of the first and third models of consumer behavior. Such a combination of models should allow a person to spend his potential at an optimal pace through previously found or suggested “channels” of establishing equivalence. Emotional stress, which inevitably arises when searching for new “channels” to eliminate emerging imbalances, should not be accompanied by consequences for human health, for others, and society as a whole. Stimulation of both various types of creativity and the search for new solutions to optimize production in conditions of Deglobalization and restrictions is, in my opinion, the most important “channel” for establishing equivalence. Spending a person’s potential through this “channel” will allow with a high degree of probability to preserve the labor potential necessary to overcome the consequences of Deglobalization. Therefore, if society wants to develop in new conditions, it is necessary to organize assistance to a person at the individual, group and population level. From the point of view of the theory of functional equivalence, the meaning of this assistance is to create a new imbalance that is more significant for a person than the imbalances associated with the loss of income, work, and habitual lifestyle. The construction of such an imbalance should be accompanied by training a person to use his potential through those “channels” that, being socially acceptable, will avoid the consequences of chronic emotional stress and quickly lead to the establishment of equivalence with the formation of positive emotions. Thus, in my opinion, the theory of functional equivalence, generalizing the known facts, is able to help analyze and predict the behavior of a person, group, or population in modern conditions, and also to justify ways to mitigate the effects of Deglobalization.
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